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Research Basics - All Subjects

Montgomery Library's Guide to Research Basics

Citation Styles

Write and Cite: Your academic papers must use both in-text citations in your essay paragraphs and full citations at the end. Plagiarism can easily happen if you focus too much on writing without citing. Don't wait until the final draft to add citations. A good habit is to put citations in your rough outline!

In-text citation vs. full citations: Mentioning the source of information within a paragraph is known as an in-text citation. Skipping in-text citation is a frequent problem for less-experienced writers, so make sure you understand this concept. An in-text citation can be written as part of the flow of the sentence or in parentheses. Here are some examples of in-text citations in MLA style where Cooke is the author and the information comes from pages 6 through 8:

According to Cooke, misinformation and disinformation are spreading rapidly online (6-8).

Cooke explains the process of how misinformation and disinformation spread rapidly online (6-8).

Misinformation and disinformation spread rapidly online (Cooke 6-8).

MLA, APA, and other citation styles have different formats to use, and the format is different if the author is a person or a general organization with no person's name listed. The resources linked below explain what to do.

Know Your Assignment! Your instructor decides which citation style you will use for your research paper. Check all computer-generated citations for accuracy with the appropriate style guide. Click here for a video clip on how to generate automatic citations in CU Search. Use these links for more information to help you create and edit your citations.

Citation Formatting Software

Tutoring and Writing Center

Part of the Badgett Academic Support Center at Campbellsville University, The Writing Center provides peer writing consultants to guide undergraduate students through the writing process.

Copyright Info

For current information about copyright issues, use these links:


Plagiarism is the act of passing off someone else's ideas, words, or production as your own, without giving credit to the source. It is fraud and falls under the definition of academic dishonesty. ‚Äč

The Campbellsville University Student Handbook has this to say about Academic Integrity:

Each person has the privilege and responsibility to develop one's learning abilities, knowledge base and practical skills. We value behavior that leads a student to take credit for one's own academic accomplishments and to give credit to other's contributions to one's work. These values can be violated by academic dishonesty and fraud.